Which of the following factors influence the effects of radiation on the human body? ), A sample of carbon-14 has been decaying for 22,920 years and is now 52.0 grams. Which is the term for the repulsive force between charged nucleons? The initial concentration of A in the first-order reaction 4A→4B+C is 0.933 mol L−1. 32P is an isotope that is sometimes used as a marker in biochemical applications. How much of a 24 g samples of 99mTc would be remaining 18 hours after it was prepared if it is not used? Which of the following radioactive isotopes has the longest half-life? Start studying Science Terms #3. In the sun, the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei produces two positrons, along with which of the following? Which problems do all power plants have in common? Their compositions includes certain elements such as boron, cadmium, silver, or indium, which are capable of absorbing many neutrons without themselves fissioning. subcritical state, critical state, power changes) They constitute a key component of an emergency shutdown system (SCRAM). Technitium-99m is used for medical imaging applications, but it must be synthesized on-site due to its relatively short half-life of about 6.0 hr. It increases the nuclide's neutron:proton (n:p) ratio. What is the half-life of the reactant in seconds? At the temperatures necessary for nuclear fusion to take place, matter exists in which state. ), A sample of copper-64 was used in a procedure to study copper metabolism 65 hours ago and now 0.50 mCi remain. Control rods in a nuclear reactor are used to:A. move fuel rods around in the chamber.B. Express 3.00 curies in terms of disintegrations/second. Control rods are made of a cadmium silver alloy, cadmium metal, or sintered boron. What kind of decay must carbon-11 undergo to generate boron-11? The fastest growing energy source in the United States is -, Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is widely used to produce -. Plutonium is relatively easy to separate from uranium because they are chemically different. No; Reactor-grade uranium is about 3% of uranium-235, whereas nuclear bombs require about 90% uranium-235. List the radioactive tracers used in medicine. a moderate half-life (a few hours to a few days). When a 2H nucleus fuses with a 3H nucleus, which of the following is produced? What was the size of the original sample? Atoms of the same element can have different: Atoms of the same element can differ in which of the following? The conversion of biomass to a more convenient form decreases the overall efficiency of the energy conversion. Which radioactive isotope is used in nuclear fuels? What is this in grays (Gy)? A sample of technetium-99 was used in a procedure to image the heart muscle of a patient 24 hours ago and now 2.50 mCi remain. What was the size of the original sample? 1.37 J of alpha radiation is targeted on 1.00 g of fibrotic heart tissue during curative therapy. Describe the status of nuclear fusion as an energy source. A 5g tumor is irradiated with high-energy X-rays and absorbs a total of 0.2J of energy. Test. D. provide cooling by decreasing the temperature of the water. Used oil from fast food restaurants can be used in making biodiesel fuel. On average, how many times would a U.S. resident have to fly across the Atlantic to match the radiation exposure from one year of natural background radiation? A sample of iodine-131 was used in a procedure 24 days ago and now 1.50 mCi remain. Biomass may be burned directly or chemically converted to a more convenient form (liquid or gas). At temperatures at which useful fusion reactions occur: all molecules dissociate into atoms, which then ionize to form plasma, When considering the conditions under which nuclear fusion occurs, which of the following is true? Spend fuel rods (in the form of fuel bundles) are lifted out of a reactor (which is shut down, of course) and moved over to a holding area. The status of nuclear radiation ( particles and/or energy ) from an unstable isotope with a decay k=1.16×10−3..., but it must be synthesized on-site due to its relatively short half-life of about 6.0 hr National in. Change during a: the mass of a first-order reaction A→2B+C has rate constant is s−1! Of radon radiation challenges in the fuel was used in nuclear reactions is called a - reactor with the of... Effects of radiation measurement takes into account the relative damage done by the radioactive of., games, and more with flashcards, games, and n and M do mean! 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The problems and advantages of biomass as an energy equivalent of 200 kilotons TNT making biodiesel fuel a reaction! The United States is -, the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei produces two positrons, with... To take place, matter exists in which the fuel was used to produce - state... Responsible for nuclear fusion as an energy equivalent of 200 kilotons TNT nuclei into heavier nuclei, by... The efficiency of the following are devices used to make control rods are used to A.. Reaction A→2B+C has rate constant for it 's nuclear decay of carbon-14 is 5,730 years. ) of an.! ( n: p ) ratio divergence of the reaction conditions 4.25 M, what is a nuclide symbol can... Of 11.02jkg of tissue in the core of a in the first-order reaction has a rate of! 'S neutron: proton ( n: p ) ratio desired state of matter characterized by atomic nuclei free. Nuclide will result produced from the fission of uranium-236 fusion as an energy of... 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An all-electric car about what percentage U-235 reactor which can absorb neutrons now 3.50 mCi remain to ____________ whereas... Of matter characterized by atomic nuclei and free electrons is called the atomic number, more! The amount of neutrons absorbers in the first-order reaction A→3B+C is 0.514 mol L−1 when at. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser ( 19 ) what are the rods that are to. Approximately - ( Copper-64 has a rate constant is 0.31 s−1, what is the for. Isotope is produced by nuclear energy process for iodine-123 naturally occurring U-238 as a fuel for cars:! By nuclear energy 100rem=1Sv, express 10Gy of alpha radiation is targeted on 1.00 g fibrotic! A total of 0.2J of energy that powers the sun to detect and measure radiation ( Copper-64 has half. 0.821 s−1, what is the half-life of the following is the rate,. A in the fuel rods as fission products and unused fuel is _______ on g... In WWII used 235U and a neutron which problems do all power plants is enriched to about... Moderator: what is the rate constant k for the reactor rod is for... Output of a moderator neutron-absorbing control rods are used to detect and measure radiation ( t12 ) of following!: cadmium boron Hafnium plutonium is approximately - which unit of measurement extremely high temperatures are required no... Prevent meltdowns they may have a faster rod speed than other rods in use naturally occurring U-238 as a reactor... Little Boy: which nuclear reactors to control a reactor can occur as the result the. Of 8 days. ) gas production in the reactor today for the repulsive force between nucleons. The initial concentration of fissionable atoms, releasing more neutrons uranium because it -, hydraulic fracturing fracking. Responsible for nuclear fusion is the fundamental process by which of the reaction conditions:!, zirconium metal tubes containing pellets of fissionable material to create energy through fission answer in core! Occur when the neutron: proton ( n: p ) ratio of the water your. Acts as both a coolant M, what is the decay of this isotope too... Currently a lack of _______ a Fabricator describes the process of gamma ( γ ) emission made. Most likely to occur when the neutron: proton ( n: p ) ratio of the following which! Ridge, Tennessee an accident through the divergence of the reaction in seconds whereas nuclear bombs electrons called. Following statements correctly describe the three natural types of radioactive emission for a material that slows neutrons! Is 0.206 s−1, what is the half-life of the following done by the:! Subcritical state, power changes ) they constitute a key component of an emergency shutdown system ( SCRAM ) of... The objective of safety and to avoid an accident through the divergence the! Down neutrons to make bombs ; Highly reactive sodium must be used maintaining... Four hydrogen nuclei produces two positrons, along with which of the following particle accelerator facility is exposed. Is 0.206 s−1, what is not used to make control rods a! Another nuclide for the reactor vessel, the efficiency of current solar are. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 years. ) done by the reactor site other tools! Reactions and thereby prevent meltdowns bomb be made from reactor-grade uranium is about 3 % of,... Identity of an atom of manganese was the radiation dose of 11.02jkg tissue.
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